Removable Partial Dentures
Removal partial denture is used not only to restore the missing tooth structure. It moreover promotes good oral health, preservation of remaining oral structures around the missing teeth, and provide good aesthetic results also. It is defined as the dental prosthesis that replaces the missing tooth which can be removed easily at any time by the patient himself/herself, and also secures the function of the missing tooth as well. There are many components assembled to form the removable partial denture which are discussed below.
Components of Removable Partial Denture
- Major Connector
- Minor Connector
- Direct Retainer
- Indirect Retainer
- Rest Seat
- Denture Base
- Artificial Teeth
As the name suggests, major connector is the component of RPD which plays a major role to connect the components of one side of the arch to the opposite side of the arch.
The minor connector is the joining link of the removable partial denture which connects the major connectors to the other components of the prosthesis such as indirect retainers, clasps, and rests.
The direct retainer is the component of a removable partial denture used to retain and prevent dislodgment of the denture, and it consists of a clasp assembly or precision attachment.
Indirect retainer is also the part of the removable partial denture that helps the direct retainer in preventing displacement of the distal extension denture base.
The rest is a rigid extension of a fixed or removable prosthesis that prevent the movement of denture towards the oral mucosa and simultaneously transmit those forces to the teeth.
The denture base is the part of the denture placed on the foundation tissues to which the artificial teeth are attached.
Artificial teeth is made up of porcelain or acrylic material which is embedded in the denture base and helps in replacing the structure and function of the natural tooth.
Types of Removable Partial Denture
There are two types of RPD which are mentioned below
- Acrylic partial dentures
- Cast partial dentures
Acrylic partial dentures
The acrylic partial dentures are also known as Acrylic flippers or Gum strippers. They are made of acrylic resin with a clasp, and they fully depend on the tissues for retention. If it is worn for longer period of time it may cause gingival recession.
Cast partial dentures
These are made by the lost wax technique, hence it is called as cast partial denture, these are of two types
Clasp retained partial denture - This type primarily uses clasps for retention.
Attachment retained partial denture - This type primarily uses premade attachments for the retention.
Temporary Removable Partial Denture
As the name suggests these are used temporarily where the tissue changes are imminent, they are of three types
- Interim denture
- Transitional denture
- Treatment Denture
Interim dentures are type of temporary partial dentures that are used temporarily for the stabilization, aesthetic purpose or function for a limited period. After that, it will be replaced by a fixed prosthesis
It is a type of temporary removable partial denture which is used as an interim prosthesis in which artificial teeth are added to replace the lost teeth in the extraction site as well as it prevents the extraction site from injury to hot foods by creating little space above the surface, and it is replaced once the post-extraction tissue was healed.
As the name suggests, the treatment denture is used after the surgery for protecting the surgical site, and also used in the case of ill-fitting prosthesis causing soft tissue injuries or soreness.
Tooth Supported RPD
This type of removable prosthesis fully depends on the natural teeth for the retention of the denture and hence it is called as tooth supported removable denture.
Distal extension RPD
The removable prosthesis is supported and retained by natural teeth which is present only at one end of the denture base segment and in which a portion of the functional load is carried by the residual ridge and hence it is named as distal extension removable prosthesis.