Posted January 1, 2023 by Anusha ‐ 2 min read
Irrigation is an important part of endodontic treatment because it removes dentin shavings from root canal treated canals. As a result, they do not become compacted near the root apex. Due to the lack of lubrication in the dry canals, endodontic instruments are unable to work properly.
Purpose of Endodontic Irrigation
Goal of endodontic treatment is to remove all vital and necrotic tissue, microorganisms and microbial byproducts from root canal system.
Properties Of Ideal Irrigant
Broad spectrum antimicrobial properties
Aid in debridement of root canal system
Ability to dissolve necrotic tissue or debris
Low toxicity level
Ability to sterilize the canal
Dissolve the smear layer
Factors Modifying The Irrigants Activity
Concentration of irrigant solution
Contact with the substrate
Presence of organic tissue
Quantity of irrigant
Temperature of irrigating solutions
Types of Irrigating Solutions
Strong base with PH more than 11
Broad antibactrial spectrum
Greater tissue dissolving activity for necrotic than vital tissues
Cationic bisbiguanide antiseptic
At low concentrations it is bacteriostatic
At high concentrations it is bactericidal to both gram ‘-’ and gram ‘+’ bacteria
It attacks multiple sites at cellular level, making resistance less likely.
Also known as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
Non corrosive to instruments
Not bactericidal nor bacteriostatic in nature
It emulsifies soft tissues and remove the smear layer with no deleterious effects
At concentrations of 15-17% it removes calcium from dentin leaving a softened matrix of dentin.
Sequence Of Irrigation
The process of endodontic irrigation in a normal root canal treatment takes place the following sequence
- Use of Hypo -> Saline irrigation -> Hypo -> Hypoactivation -> Saline irrigation -> Evacuate -> EDTA/ Smearclear -> Saline irrigation -> Evacuate -> 2% Chlorhexidine -> Dry the canals with paper point -> Obturate the canals with Gutta percha points.