Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Posted October 4, 2022 by Anusha ‐ 1 min read

According to the morphological point of view, prokaryotic cells are the most primitive cells. They do not have a definite nucleus which includes bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). It is believed that eukaryotes have evolved from the prokaryotes. They have been characterised by their membrane nucleus. They contain organelles like mitochondria bounded by membranes and are located in the cytoplasm.

Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic CellEukaryotic cell
Size is 0.1- 5.0 umSize is 5-100 um
Nucleus is absentNucleus is present
Membrane-bound nucleus absent.Membrane-bound Nucleus is present.
One chromosome is present, but not true chromosome plastidsMore than one number of chromosomes is present.
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes absentLysosomes and Peroxisomes present
Microtubules absentMicrotubules present
Endoplasmic reticulum absentEndoplasmic reticulum present
Mitochondria absentMitochondria present
Cytoskeleton absentCytoskeleton present
Ribosomes smallerRibosomes larger
Vesicles presentVesicles present
Golgi apparatus absentGolgi apparatus present
Chloroplasts absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasmChloroplasts present in plants
Submicroscopic in size Flagella is present and made up of only one fiberMicroscopic in size, membrane-bound
Cell wall chemically complexedCell wall is present in plants and fungi and chemically simpler
Vacuoles absentVacuoles present
Permeability of Nuclear membrane is not presentPermeability of Nuclear membrane is selective
Sexual reproduction is absentSexual reproduction is present
Endocytosis and exocytosis are absent.Endocytosis and exocytosis occurred
It may have pili and fimbriae.Pili and fimbriae are absent
Transcription occurs in the cytoplasmTranscription occurs inside the nucleus.
Examples: Bacteria and ArchaeaExamples: Protists, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
differences prokaryotic eukaryotic-cells

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