Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation On A Child

Posted July 25, 2022 by Anusha ‐ 5 min read

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation also called as (CPR) is a lifesaving technique that's useful in many emergencies, such as a heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. Immediate CPR can double or triple chances of survival after cardiac arrest. The American Heart Association recommends starting CPR with hard and fast chest compressions.

The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through puberty is essentially the same as that for an adult, follow the C-A-B steps. The American Heart Association says you should not delay CPR and offers this advice on how to perform CPR on a child:

Compressions: Restore blood flow

  • If you are alone and didn’t see the child collapse, start chest compressions for about two minutes. Then quickly call your local emergency number and get the AED if one is available.

  • If you’re alone and you did see the child collapse, call your local emergency number first. Then get the AED, if available, and start CPR. If another person is with you, have that person call for help and get the AED while you start CPR.

  • Place the child on his or her back on a firm surface.

  • Kneel next to the child’s neck and shoulders.

  • Place two hands or only one hand if the child is very small on the lower half of the child’s breastbone or sternum.

  • Using the heel of one or both hands, press straight down on (compress) the chest about 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters) but not greater than 2.4 inches (approximately 6 centimeters).

  • Push hard and fast — 100 to 120 compressions a minute.

  • If you haven’t been trained in CPR, continue chest compressions until the child moves or until emergency medical personnel take over.

  • If you have been trained in CPR, open the airway and start rescue breathing.

Airway: Open the airway

If you’re trained in CPR and you’ve performed 30 chest compressions, open the child’s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver.

Place your palm on the child’s forehead and gently tilt his or her head back. With the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.

Breathing: Breathe for the child

Follow these steps for mouth-to-mouth breathing for a child.

  • After using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver to open the airway, pinch the child’s nostrils shut. Cover the child’s mouth with yours, making a seal.

  • Breathe into the child’s mouth for one second and watch to see if the chest rises. If it rises, give a second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver first, and then give the second breath.

  • Be careful not to provide too many breaths or to breathe with too much force.

  • After the two breaths, immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths.

  • Note : If there are two people available to do CPR on the child, change rescuers every two minutes or sooner if the rescuer is fatigued — and give one to two breaths every 15 compressions.

  • As soon as an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. As soon as an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Use pediatric pads for children older than 4 weeks old and up to age 8.

  • If pediatric pads aren’t available, use adult pads. Give one shock, then restart CPR starting with chest compressions for two more minutes before giving a second shock.

  • If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 911 operator or another emergency medical operator may be able to give you directions.

  • Continue until the child moves or help arrives.

To perform CPR on a baby 4 weeks old or older

  • Cardiac arrest in babies is usually due to a lack of oxygen, such as from choking. If you know that the baby has an airway blockage, perform first aid for choking. If you don’t know why the baby isn’t breathing, perform CPR.

  • First, evaluate the situation. Touch the baby and watch for a response, such as movement. Don’t shake the baby.

  • If there’s no response, call 911 or your local emergency number, then immediately start CPR.

  • Follow the compressions, airway and breathing (C-A-B) procedure below for a baby under age 1 except newborns, which include babies up to 4 weeks old.

  • If you saw the baby collapse, get the AED, if one is available, before beginning CPR. If another person is available, have that person call for help immediately and get the AED while you stay with the baby and perform CPR.

Compressions: Restore blood flow

  • Place the baby on his or her back on a firm, flat surface, such as a table or floor.

  • Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby’s nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.

  • Gently compress the chest about 1.5 inches about 4 centimeters.

  • Count aloud as you push in a fairly rapid rhythm.

  • You should push at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions a minute, just as you would when giving an adult CPR.

Airway: Open the airway

After 30 compressions, gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.

Breathing: Breathe for the baby

  • Cover the baby’s mouth and nose with your mouth.

  • Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air instead of deep breaths from your lungs to slowly breathe into the baby’s mouth one time, taking one second for the breath. Watch to see if the baby’s chest rises.

  • If it does, give a second rescue breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.

  • If the baby’s chest still doesn’t rise, continue chest compressions.

  • Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions. If two people are performing CPR, give one to two breaths after every 15 chest compressions.

  • Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until medical personnel arrive.

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